Any given person will be in one or more roles, an individual can change her role(s) over time, and any given role will have zero or more people performing it at any given time. For example, Simon may be in the role of team member and architecture owner right now but step into the role of product owner next month when Sandra, the existing product owner, goes on vacation.
Roles are not positions, nor are they meant to be. For example, although there may be a number of stakeholders of your project none of them is likely to have a position of “stakeholder.”
|Product Owner||Speaks for the customer.|
|Architecture Owner||Focuses on the technology aspect.|
|Team Member||Generalizing specialist.|
|(Servant) Team Lead||Facilitator of the needs of the team.|
|(Stakeholder / Customer / Sponsor)||Entities inside or outside the organisation that have an interest in the project. The sponsor provides funding.|
|Specialist||Most agile team members are generalizing specialists. For larger projects team members may be recognized as specialist in an area of expertise.|
|Technical Expert||Technical experts are experts external to the team who are brought in to help overcome an obstacle or to transfer their skills to the team.|
|(Independent) Tester||Outside validation of work (i.e. system integration testing, user acceptance testing or penetration testing)|
|Domain Expert||Person who is an authority in a particular area or topic and often provided by the stakeholder to explain certain aspects of the requirements.
|Integrator||Integration of subsystems or features often provided by sub-teams.|
Note: Secondary roles are easily misinterpreted as there is some overlap between specialist, technical expert and domain expert roles; these roles are all subject matter experts in their own right.
Teams do more than simply implement requirements, so the “product backlog” evolves from being a stack of requirements to a stack of work items that include requirements, defects to be addressed, work to support other teams (such as reviews of their work), and activities to help support the team (such as deployment activities and training). The entire work item list needs to be prioritized, not just the backlog of requirements, implying greater responsibility for the product owner.